The Political System or Form of Government: The UK, The USA, and France

This is an examination of the Political System or Form of Government in The UK, The USA, and France.

The UK's management system is a constitutional monarchy. More precisely, it is a revolutionary unitary state, governed by a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy. Currently, president II. Elizabeth. The UK is a state of four constituent countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. As I mentioned while describing the constitution and the principle of separation of powers, England's system is unique and exceptional. The most prominent feature of the UK's constitutional position is the sovereignty of Parliament. While almost all the states with a democratic system have adopted the principle of constitutional superiority, the principle of legislative immunity of a system, that is, the parliament is the opposite of this situation in the UK, which constitutes the most important example of democracy.

Its executive power has two appearances. On the one hand queen or king, the government on the other. The Council of Ministers should also sign every transaction and document that the king makes. The king alone has no political power. King's duties are accepting foreign diplomatic representatives, creating new lords, and reading the opening speech of parliament which the Prime Minister writes. Also, the king can dissolve parliament. Throws the prime minister. The King may terminate the assembly at the request of the government in cases of emergency. It cannot dissolve alone. As I mentioned before, there is no limit to legislation. There are two built assemblies: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The house of lords has very little authority over the house of Commons. There is nobody to oversee the laws made by parliament. The king or prime minister does not have the right to veto the law. So there is no limit on legislative power. It is only public opinion that affects parliament. Any British citizen who is over 21 years old can vote in the parliamentary elections. There is no written constitution in England, but there are laws. These laws are considered constitutions in constitutional courts. Since the establishment of the Constitutional Court in 2009 Supervision of the legislature and executive is in the Constitutional Courts. The king throws those who fulfill this task.

The USA is a federal republic based on pluralist democracy, governed by a presidential system. The federal-state structure includes the “District of Columbia”, which includes 50 federal states and the capital Washington. In accordance with the federal system, the duties, powers, and responsibilities of the federal government and state administrations that are free in their internal affairs are defined in the Constitution. The powers of the president are quite broad. However, it is not unlimited. The executive power (president) is elected by the people. In the parliamentary system, the executive is born in the parliament, while in the presidential system, the president, the executive, is elected by the people. This is the main difference between the two systems. The UK is governed by the parliamentary system, the USA is governed by the presidential system. According to the parliamentary system; In a country, the council of ministers takes office with the approval of the parliament. According to the presidential system; There is a complete separation between the executive and the legislature. The person at the beginning of the executive, that is, the chairman, is not elected and appointed by parliament. It is elected by the public. In the USA, the president is the head of the executive. The executive powers other than the president (prime minister, the cabinet of ministers) are not constitutional institutions. Only the president has constitutional power. Federal legislative power belongs to Congress. The congress consists of a 435-member House of Representatives elected on a population basis, and a 100-member Senate, where each state is represented by two people. Members of the House of Representatives are elected for 2 years, and Senators for 6 years. For the constitutional amendment, a two-thirds majority should be provided in both wings of Congress.  The highest judicial institution is the Constitutional Court. It inspects the laws made by the Parliament for compliance with the constitution. The Constitutional Court consists of 9 members, the members appoint the chairman. Members of the Constitutional Court are appointed for life. It cannot be said that the judiciary is independent. Because its members elect the president

France is an example of a semi-presidential system. The government is not born out of parliament, but parliament can dismiss the government. Some authors define the French political system as a "super presidential system." The president has more powers than the prime minister in the presidential system. In France, the president is the head of the executive. The president, the prime minister, and the minister may appoint any person to the board. If the president does not chair the ministerial council, the decisions of the ministerial council have no meaning. In case of emergency, the president has the power to issue laws like parliament. The power to take a state of emergency is also in the president. The President alone has the power to dissolve the legislature. There is a bicameral legislature; a National assembly and Senate. It has an asymmetric double chamber. The national assembly has more power than the senate. The law is accepted if the national assembly accepts. People elect national council members. Senate members are appointed by a board of local administrators. The Constitutional Court has 9 members. 3 of them are directly appointed by the president, 3 by the Senate, and 3 by the national assembly.